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There’s a crayfish in the garden

September 18, 2020

Last week I was asked whether slaters were harmful to the garden. So I looked back at all the blog posts we had written over the past decade and discovered we had never discussed these ubiquitous critters – apart from one blog post on Slater-eating Spiders.

Slaters are crustaceans just like lobsters and prawns and are an introduced species in Australia. Although terrestrial they still have a need to be in a moist environment, commonly living under rocks, logs and leaf litter and coming out at night when the chances of dehydration are minimised. They have seven pairs of legs and two pairs of antennae. The female slater does not lay her eggs but carries them around in a pouch. The young remain in the pouch for a short time after hatching. They look like small adults and grow through a series of moulting stages. Unlike most arthropods the moult takes place in two stages rather than one. The exoskeleton splits and the back half is shed, followed by the front half a couple of days later.

And as to the garden question, slaters are great in the garden. They are detritus feeders, feeding on decayed plant (and animal) matter and returning nutrients to the soil.

I am glad evolution chose these to come on to land. Can you imagine having crayfish in your garden hiding under your flower pots?

The mask of Zorro

September 13, 2020

After a while one gets to know all the waterbirds of an area but when the weather conditions provide different conditions new habitats are formed and new birds appear (or maybe they have been there all along but are more widely seen!).

I am familiar with the herons, egrets and spoonbills – those long-legged waders who inhabit our dams and riparian zones where the water level is deep. This winter has been particularly wet, just like the old days the old-timers will tell you. Dams are full and waterways are flooding. When rain continues to fall on water-logged soil small, shallow temporary lakes are formed in depressions where water does not normally sit for long. This provides an opportunity for different waterbirds to come in and forage.

The Black-fronted Dotterel (Elseyornis melanops), pictured, is one such example – the term melanops coming from the Greek melas meaning black and ops meaning face.

The adult features a black breast-bone, mask and forehead. This bird is a wading bird commonly widespread in Australia around fresh water bodies. But as the photos show it has short legs and is therefore restricted to foraging in very shallow water, precisely what all this rain is creating in abundance in the landscape. These photos were taken at the local golf course.

A type of plover, the Black-fronted Dotterel feeds on insects and seeds. The young birds lack the black breastband and forehead but have the black-mask.

Zorro from birth.

L’amour Frogs

September 9, 2020

Frogs are all around us. You may not always see them, but you do hear them. They are an important part of the food chain, they eat lots of insects and many creatures eat them.

However frog populations are declining from habitat loss and degradation, disease and climate change.

In Victoria there are 36 different species of frogs, of these 12 are found in the Goulburn catchment. So it is not that difficult to become familiar with the calls and behaviour of all our local frogs.

Frogs of the Goulburn Catchment:

Perons Tree Frog

FrogID is a national citizen science project that enables anyone to record and upload frog calls, along with time and location data, using the free app. By downloading the free FrogID app onto your smartphone, you can record and submit any frog calls you hear, which helps us to understand where different frog species are, and how they are doing.

Click here for information and to download the free app: Frog ID app.

Frogs are one of the planet’s most threatened groups of animals and are often an indicator of environmental health. Through the Frog ID app people across Australia have already begun to reveal the impact of drought and bushfires on frogs.

You usually do not have to venture too far to find frogs. Water bodies are of course the easiest places to hear frogs. Wherever there is a creek, stream, dam, pond or flooded area these are the best places to go especially after rain. Many frogs prefer still water in ephemeral areas as these don’t usually have the fish that prey on tadpoles and small frogs.

Pobblebonk Frog spawn

Frog Spawn (eggs)

Frogs tend to be nocturnal so the first few hours after dark is when they are easiest to hear but frogs will also call during the day. The calls you hear are male frogs calling to attract females.

Frogs can also be seen at night around the edges of wet areas. Without disturbing them, look carefully around the edges with a torch and look for their eye shine.

Pobblebonk or Banjo Frog

The Banjo Frog, or Pobblebonk (Limnodynastes dumerilii) is one frog that is often heard calling day and night. The male calls while he is floating in the open water and some will call from inside a yabby burrow to amplify the sound. After mating, the female lays a large white floating raft of over 500 eggs. When the tadpoles hatch, they are dark brown and can sometimes take up to 15 months to metamorphose into frogs, depending on the temperature.

When my son was a boy he loved this short animated video that features Banjo Frogs. He still loves frogs, who doesn’t love frogs?

Chris Cobern.

Cacophany is the word

September 6, 2020

At the moment the hill is being mobbed by Pied Currawongs (Strepera graculina), lots of them. A search of the web revealed no formal collective noun for these birds. Many had suggested the word I had in mind – cacophony, because when they get together currawongs make a racket (listen to audio clip below).

The word currawong is onomatopoeic from indigenous origins. It is not surprising that the scientific name is derived from the Latin words strepo, to make a noise, and graculus meaning jackdaw-like (a jackdaw being a European bird of the crow family).

Pied Currawongs are in the same family as Butcherbirds and the Australian Magpie. They are altitudinal migrants moving down from the forested highlands in winter to lower altitudes. They are also omnivorous. In winter i.e. now the birds forage in large flocks, but in summer currawongs forage in pairs. They eat fruit, berries, insects and small lizards but are also voracious predators of bird’s eggs and small and young birds. Many a blog has lamented the demise of the occupants of avidly watched small bird nests at the beak of a Pied Currawong or Raven.

This doesn’t mean the currawong gets its own way all the time. In parts of Australia (Sydney and north) the Channel-billed Cuckoo parasitises Pied Currawong nests by laying their own eggs in it. The cuckoo chick is then raised by the currawongs.

Down around these parts particularly in winter, mornings can be a noisy affair due to flocks of currawongs. In addition most other bird species actively mob currawongs to move them away from their own nests in the hope of protecting their eggs or chicks.

Cacophany multiplied.

It’s in the name

August 31, 2020

A lot of fauna derive their common names from either the location where they are found or their appearance, or both, for example the Crimson Rosella, Blue-banded Bee, Eastern Yellow Robin. A few however are named after what they do. This is very useful when trying to look for them in the bush. With Spring almost upon us some of these ‘doing’ named critters are acting true to type.

uraba lugens DSCN9072One of the most delicate artefacts one can find when walking through the bush is a perfect skeleton of a gum leaf with all the veins intact. It should be no surprise given the theme of this blog that one of the architects of this is the caterpillar of the Gum-leaf Skeletoniser Moth (Uraba lugens). The adult moth lays between 100 and 200 eggs, twice a year. The resulting caterpillars (see picture above) eat only the surface layer of a leaf on both sides before moving on to the next leaf, leaving the gum-leaf veins.

z Eucalyptus Tip-wilter Bug (Amorbus sp.) DSCN6408Another critter with a name suggesting its habit is the Eucalyptus Tip-wilter Bug (Amorbus sp.). These insects are Hemipteran i.e. equipped with sucking mouthparts for extracting sap. In Spring gum trees start to develop new shoots. Both the adults and instars of the Tip-wilter Bug attack these shoots extracting the sap and causing the new growth to shrivel and die.

I suggest we start renaming some of our local fauna. How about a ‘Destroying the windscreen rubber of your car’ Cockatoo and ‘Poo all over the patio’ Swallow.

Black cockatoo query

August 28, 2020

Recently the question was asked if the Strath Creek/Flowerdale area had ever been part of the home range of black cockatoos other than the Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus.

A long term resident of the district recalls seeing what he assumed were the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus magnificus over 50 years ago.

There are two types of black cockatoos in Victoria that have red markings on their tails the Red-tailed Black Cockatoo and the Glossy Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami.


Glossy Black Cockatoo


Red-tailed Black Cockatoo










Historically both species were more widespread in Victoria than they are now but these days both birds have a very reduced home range (See map below). However Strath Creek/Flowerdale would have always been outside the normal range of both species.

C. lathami are now usually only found in far East Gippsland and C. magnificus is restricted to the western part of Victoria.

RTBC map current

Occasionally C. lathami will still appear more westerly. This year for instance there have been sightings of them at Mt Macedon and even close to Melbourne in the SE suburbs around Dandenong and Frankston. Their recent movements are probably due to the fires that occured over large areas of East Gippsland. Other observations in recent years have also occurred in the Strathbogie Ranges.

In past decades it may not have been that unusual to occasionally see either of the species in the Strath Creek/Flowerdale district if their main feed plants were present.

A major part of the C. lathami’s and C. magnificus’ diet is the seed of sheoaks (Allocasuarina species) and the loss of these plants in the landscape is almost certainly the cause of the decline of both species in Victoria. Over the last few years UGLN have been including the drooping and black she-oak in many of our landcare plantings in an effort to increase the distribution of the plants and the wildlife that feed on the plants.

There are still a few remnant she-oaks in the district but logging, clearing for agriculture and browsing by stock, rabbits and feral deer have severely affected their ability to regenerate and these plants are now quite rare in much of the upper goulburn region.


Drooping Sheoak Allocasuarina verticillata

If anyone has any old or new observations from the area about either of these two magnificent birds or sheoaks i’d be very interested to hear about them.

Email Chris Cobern:

The more things change…

August 16, 2020

Events of the past week sent me up the hill to the bush block to find some peace and quiet to ponder and try and make sense of it all. I had not been up there for a while. The need for reliable phone coverage and internet to sort out the current administrivia of my life had kept me in town for too long.

Superb Fairy-wren DSCN8947Even before I got out of the car I was greeted by an old friend. This male Superb Fairywren (Malurus cyaneus), pictured left, immediately appeared and took up the battle where he had left off months ago (it may not be the same one), attacking the old nemesis – his reflection in the car windscreen and rear view mirrors. The bird finally flew away when I realise that waiting in the car for the assault to finish might have me waiting a long time. So I got out.

In nest box at the side of the house I was greeted for the tenth consecutive year by an Australian Owlet-Nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus), pictured below. It was obviously still confused as it had again taken up residence in the ‘rosella’ nest-box. Meanwhile not 20m away were two ‘Owlet-nightjar’ nest-boxes that have sat vacant now for 11 years.

z Australian Owlet-nightjar (Aegotheles cristatus) DSCN8978

cootamundra DSCN3373And in the bush the ‘acacia cycle’ was in full swing. There are eight acacia species on the property which flower in a specific sequence every year. The Cootamundra and Snake Wattle blooms were slowly fading, the Golden Wattle was in full flower and I know from past history which wattles will flower next and in what order. At ground level the appearance of Early Nancys signal the imminent arrival of the lilies. They are not called ‘early’ for nothing.

It seems that irrespective of how transient human affairs may seem to be, the predictable and reliable cycles of Mother Nature continue on. And there is a strange comfort in that.

Vale Macwake

August 13, 2020

Those who are regular readers of this blog will recognise the work of Macwake otherwise known as David Wakefield and Laurie Macmillan. Dave, Laurie and Bertram Lobert with the support of the Upper Goulburn Landcare Network set up the Focus on Fauna project in response to the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires. As well as active field-work Dave penned (and Laurie edited) the original Focus on Fauna blogs. Sadly David Wakefield and Laurie Macmillan passed away this week.

Much will be said in other forums about the impact they have had on the community at large and the legacy they have left.


Coonans Reserve working bee, December, 2018

From a personal perspective, I first met Dave and Laurie at a Strath Creek Landcare Group function just after I had moved into the district a week prior to Black Saturday. I immediately saw in Dave a kindred spirit. He was a gentle man with a love of the environment and a vast understanding of the natural world and the interaction of things in it. We ‘clicked’ immediately. Over the years Dave has been a mentor to me generously sharing this knowledge. In 2012 he invited me to contribute to the Focus on Fauna blog and together, until recently, the two of us maintained the punishing effort of publishing two blogs a week (one each) on all manner of fauna in our valley…nearly 700 in total. We also talked about the Focus project at venues across the state and it was Dave who first encouraged me to deliver talks on the animals that we had found, a creative outlet I have enjoyed ever since.

Focus on Fauna will continue true to the vision of David, Laurie and Bertram. The hole left by David and Laurie however is immense. I had so much more to learn from them but am grateful for what they shared.

Chapeau my friends. It has been an honour.

ronlit (aka Ron Litjens)

Nature or nurture?

August 10, 2020

The last blog introduced Nellie and Griff, two young ‘Attenboroughs’ who at our Landcare planting last week spent more time lying prostrate on the ground examining what lived at that level than they did walking around. It raises a very David Attenborough-type question ‘How did they become so interested in this stuff? Is it some inherent quality or did they learn it from the home environment? Nature or nurture?’ It prompted me to find a set of photographs which their mother, Cat, our Landcare facilitator gave me late last year for use in a blog (see below).

Most will associate the insect life-cycle as comprising four distinct stages – egg, larvae, pupa and adult e.g. butterflies. However many insects such as cicadas and dragonflies develop through three phases – the egg, nymph and then the adult. The nymph looks almost identical to the adult (but has no wings) and as it grows it goes through several moults where it casts off the old, small skin (exoskeleton) and develops a new larger one. This process of moulting is known as ecdysis. In the final moult the adult emerges complete with wings.

Cockroaches also develop by this pathway. Cat photographed a cockroach moulting in her wood shed. The emerging insect can be seen backing out of its old skin that is left containing all the features of the recently departed insect including the antennae. The new exoskeleton is initially soft but hardens when exposed to air. From the photo it is hard to tell if the emerged cockroach is the adult or one of the instars (a term used to describe a nymph during the lifecycle e.g. 1st instar, 2nd instar, etc).

And I suspect the answer to the title question is both.

Young Attenboroughs at large

August 7, 2020

Last weekend the Yea River Landcare group had its first official ‘Not National Tree Day’ planting event, held coincidentally on the day National Tree Day was supposed to be held. In line with the restrictions the planting was broken up into an AM group and a PM group, social distancing was maintained and some people wore masks (not mandatory at the time). Not the social occasion we have been used to in the past! Part of our group were two youngsters Griff and Nellie who initially were deployed transporting tree guards, stakes and plants to the required locations, but when that was done swiftly started searching the bush to see what they could find… Attenboroughs of the future.

Their discovery of the day would have to be a Wolf Spider (pictured above) which had obviously been displaced by the planting activity and was trying to carry its egg sac to a safer place. Spiders lay their eggs in a woven sac of silk. For many spiders the sac is fixed either within the web or on vegetation, for example under bark. Wolf Spiders do not build webs. They are ambush hunters and can also chase and catch prey. Wolf Spiders are unique in that they carry their egg sac with them. The sac is attached by a line of silk (see photo) to the spinnerets on the abdomen. When walking the spider has to raise its abdomen so that the sac does not drag on the ground. After hatching, the young spiders spend several weeks clinging to the adult spider’s back…I should get the Young Attenboroughs to find that for me.

The bush exploration also turned up a collection of grubs and other interesting things such as the sucked out shell of a much smaller Wolf Spider. Oh to have young eyesight again!